There are several choices to make in selecting the right smoke/fire alarms to buy, the most important thing to remember is that smoke alarms save lives. For that reason, you should install a smoke alarm if your home does not have one. Installing additional smoke alarms throughout the house provides greater protection.

FIRE SAFETY ALARM contain different or multiple sensors : There are two main types of smoke alarms, which are categorized by the type of smoke detection sensor, ionization and photoelectric, used in the alarm. Each type of smoke alarm may perform differently in different types of fires. A smoke alarm may use multiple sensors, sometimes with a heat detector or carbon monoxide detector, to warn of a fire. Ionization detectors contain a chamber with two plates that generate a small, continuous electric current. When smoke particles enter the ionization chamber, the smoke particles disrupt the current flow, which triggers the alarm. Photoelectric detectors use a light beam and light receptor (photocell). When smoke particles are present between the light and receptor, depending on the type of smoke chamber configuration, the reduction or increase of light on the photocell sensor triggers the alarm.

FIRE SAFETY ALARMS may perform differently:- Both ionization and photoelectric detectors are effective smoke sensors, and even though both types of smoke detectors must pass the same tests to be certified to the voluntary standard for smoke alarms, they can perform differently in different types of fires. Ionization detectors respond quickly to flaming fires that give off heat and hot gases with smaller (sub-micron) combustion particles; photoelectric detectors respond more quickly to smouldering fires that give off larger combustion particles. There are combination smoke alarms that combine ionization and photoelectric detectors into one unit, called dual sensor smoke alarms The amount of time a person may have to escape depends on many factors, such as the type of fire, location of the fire, and the closest smoke alarm.

1. Detect Fire

Your fire alarm system is designed to detect fire in two main ways: smoke and heat. It should also have the capability of manual pull, in case a fire is observed before smoke or heat reaches the sensors of the system. Other systems are activated when movement in the sprinkler system is detected, indicating that the sprinklers are responding to a fire. 

2. Alert Occupants

When the fire alarm system detects smoke, heat, or water movement, it alerts occupants of the building using both audible and visible alarms. These alarms will be bright, loud, obnoxious, and impossible to ignore, which help mobilize individuals to follow your evacuation plan. Using both types of alarms ensure that every person in the building is alerted.

3.Manage Risks

Your building’s fire alarm system works in a third way to protect you: by reacting to potential risks using control measures. When the alarm is activated, some systems perform a set of tasks that help prevent fire and smoke from spreading as well as protect occupants, such as: automatically shutting doors in different zones, powering off ventilation and air conditioning, or redirecting elevators to bring cars to a designated level.

4. Notify Authorities

The fourth purpose of your fire alarm system is to notify authorities. This ensures the fire department is en route as quickly as possible, so they can respond and extinguish the fire before it becomes an even bigger threat. 

  • AlarmAn alarm condition is exactly what was outlined in the section above. In the event that there is an immediate threat to life, property, or mission, the fire alarm system will sound the alarm, notifying occupants to escape, and letting the authorities know they need to respond. 
  • Trouble. A trouble condition means that something is wrong with the system itself. Fire alarm systems necessarily employ a trouble condition to alert you or your building manager that while there may not be an immediate danger, you’ll need immediate inspection and repair of your system. 
  • Supervisory. A supervisory condition — means that the system the fire alarm monitors has some sort of issue. This could signal anything from low or high pressure in the suppression system to  a malfunction of the fire pump. 


Generally if homes, shops and factories caught in fire then water is used to control fire. Water brings down the temperature of the combustible substance below its ignition temperature. The water vapour surrounds the combustible material, thus helping in cutting off the supply of air. So, that the fire is extinguished.

Fire produced by the burning of oil or petrol cannot be controlled by throwing water on it because water being heavier than oil, settles down the oil and oil continues to bum? So, now a day we can use different types of Fire Extinguisher for each type.

We know that there are 3 conditions necessary for producing and sustaining combustion.

  • Presence of a combustible substance.
  • Presence of a supporter of combustion.
  • Attainment of ignition or kindling temperature.

Thus, fire can be controlled by removing one or more of these requirements of fire control. The fire extinguishers also try to cut off the supply of air or bring down the temperature of the fuel or both, to control the fire. The combustible substance as such cannot be eliminated in most of the cases from the place of fire.

There are various types of fire extinguishers used for controlling a fire.

For Example:- Soda – acid fire extinguisher : Carbon dioxide liberated by the reaction of sulphuric acid with sodium bicarbonate solution comes out with a stream of liquid water at high pressure. Water puts off the fire by lowering the temperature of the combustible material below its ignition temperature and carbon dioxide cut off the supply of air to the combustible substance

Types of combustion

Combustion is mainly of three types

  • (1)Rapid combustion (2) Spontaneous combustion (3) Explosion


1.Rapid combustion: The combustion in which the gas burns rapidly produces heat and light is called rapid combustion. For example: When a burning matchstick is brought near a gas burner and the gas tap is opened, the gas immediately starts burning with the production of heat and light. Eg. Petrol, LPG, spirit, etc.

2. Spontaneous combustion: The combustion in which no external heat is given is known as spontaneous combustion. For example: Burning of white phosphorus in air.

3. Explosion: The combustion in which large amount of gases are evolved with the production of a tremendous amount of heat, light and sound is called explosion. For example: When a cracker is ignited, a sudden reaction, oxidation process takes place, and in which at high speed large amount of gas is evolved with the production of tremendous amount of heat, light and sound.

Structure of a flame

In order to understand the structure of a flame, light a wax candle and watch its flame. Carefully note the different coloured zones in the flame. Starting from the base of the flame, a flame has four zones.

(1)   Blue zone: It is near the base of the flame. Vaporised wax gets oxidised to carbon monoxide and carbon monoxide bums completely with a blue flame in this zone.

(2)   Dark inner zone: Surrounding the wick is the dark zone. There is no burning in this zone. If we pass a wooden splinter through the dark zone of the flame, it comes out unscratched (unburnt) showing that there is no ‘burning’ in this zone. However, some =burnt wax vapours are present in this zone.

(3)   Luminous zone: In this region of the flame hydrogen burns with a brilliant yellow luminous flame. Burning hydrogen combines with oxygen to form water vapour. Carbon also burns in this zone giving some luminosity to the flame and producing carbon dioxide. Some unblunt carbon particles are left which give rise to soot.

(4)   Outermost non-luminous zone: This zone is poorly visible and is slightly blue. It is the hottest part of the flame where complete oxidation (burning) of the fuel is taking place.


There are many types of butterfly valves, including quick cut-off and continuous adjustment, Pneumatic butterfly valves , electric butterfly valves are mainly used for liquid and gas low pressure large diameter pipelines. It is suitable for occasions where the pressure loss is not high, flow adjustment is required, and the opening and closing requirements are fast; usually the temperature is below 300 ℃ and the pressure is below 40 kg (butterfly valves generally use low pressure, like domestic ones. It is rare to achieve CL600). The medium is generally used for water and gas, and the medium is not demanding. Granular medium can also be used.

As a sealed butterfly valve, it brought rapid development after the emergence of synthetic rubber, so it is a new type of shut-off valve. Butterfly valves were mainly used for low-pressure valves, and the valve seat was made of synthetic rubber. By the 1990s, due to increased exchanges with foreign countries, hard seal  but, hard seal butterfly valves  developed rapidly. At present, there are many valve factories that can produce medium-pressure metal-sealed butterfly valves stably, which makes the application field of butterfly valves wider.

The media that the butterfly valve can transport and control are water, condensate, circulating water, sewage, sea water, air, gas, liquid natural gas, dry powder, mud, fruit pulp and mixtures with suspended solids.

Butterfly valves are suitable for flow regulation. Since the pressure loss of the butterfly valve in the pipeline is relatively large, about three times that of the gate valve,  when selecting the butterfly valve, the influence of the pressure loss of the pipeline system should be fully considered, and the strength of the butterfly plate to withstand the pressure of the pipeline medium should also be considered. In addition, it is necessary to consider the limitation of the working temperature of the elastic valve seat material at high temperature. The structural length and overall height of the butterfly valve are small, the opening and closing speed is fast, and it has good fluid control characteristics. The structural principle of the butterfly valve is most suitable for making large-diameter valves. When the butterfly valve is required to control the flow, the most important thing is to correctly select the size and type of the butterfly valve so that it can work properly and effectively.

1. Generally, in throttling, regulating control and mud medium, the structure length is short and the opening and closing speed is fast (1/4 revolution). Low pressure cut-off (small pressure difference), butterfly valve is recommended.

2. The butterfly valve can be used when two-position adjustment, narrow passage, low noise, cavitation and vaporization phenomenon, a small amount of leakage into the atmosphere, and abrasive media.

3. When the butterfly valve is used under special conditions, such as throttling adjustment, or strict sealing requirements, or severe wear, low temperature (cryogenic) and other operating conditions, it is necessary to use a specially designed metal seal with a triple eccentric or double eccentric adjustment device Special butterfly valve for ground.

4. The centerline butterfly valve is suitable for fresh water, sewage, sea water, salt water, steam, natural gas, food, medicine, and oil that require complete sealing, zero gas test leakage, high life requirements, and working temperature of -10℃~150℃ And various acid and alkali and other pipelines.

5. The soft-sealed eccentric butterfly valve is suitable for two-way opening and closing and adjustment of ventilation and dust removal pipelines. It is widely used in gas pipelines and waterways in metallurgy, light industry, electric power, and petrochemical systems.


Having a fire sprinkler system installed has a number of value and fire protection benefits. Sprinkler Systems are usually most effective when they are automatic suppression based. Benefits of installing fire sprinklers is that they can help protect and save all the occupants of the property. It’s essential to protect your property in any way you can.

By having a fire sprinkler system installed along with traditional methods such as smoke alarms you’ll help to protect both your property and the people in it. Properties that use both fire alarms and suppression systems reduce the risk of fire related death by 82%.

Compared to the damage fires can cause, free sprinklers are a cost effective way to protect both your physical property and the people living or working there. Most fire sprinkler systems cost a couple of percent of the overall property value. If you can afford a new kitchen, then you can afford to have a fire protection system fitted too.

Active fire sprinklers eliminate the possibly or people becoming trapped in a property, when a fire breaks out. Even without a clear fire exit, sprinklers can help to create a path, so people can escape safely. Using a combination of alarms, sprinklers and extinguishers is the best way to keep your building and the people in it safe in the event of a fire.

When the fire brigade sprays water into your property, it can cause extensive amounts of damage to both the visual appearance and to the structure of the property. Sprinklers installed in properties only use a minimum amount of water, meaning less damage will be caused when they go off compared to a fire engines hose.

Most types of fire sprinklers require very little maintenance and they typically continue running smoothly with only their annual maintenance check. Most installers also offer maintenance checks once or twice a year where they will test the value so see how the system is operating.

Reduces the Insurance Cost : Whether you’re a home or business owner, it’s likely you’ll be paying some type of insurance to protect your property in the event of damage. Claiming on these policies can be costly in the long run especially once you’ve claimed on them. Insurance premiums can be reduced by up to 15% when you have sprinklers installed in your property. That must be a benefit of installing fire sprinklers

Whilst there may be an upfront cost to pay out when you first have the system installed, it could be worth it when if you every sell your property. Properties using fire sprinklers are a much more attractive purchase for any type of buyer.


Actually  fire extinguishers are differentiated  according to the objects /materials which tends to fire. There are different ‘classes’ of fire, for which each extinguisher is designed to tackle. These classes are based on which fuels a fire starts with. It’s the presence of these fuels within your business premises that will help determine which types of fire extinguisher you need and in which locations.

  • Class A: freely burning, combustible solid materials such as wood or paper
  • Class B: flammable liquid or gas
  • Class C: energized electrical fire (energized electrical source serves as the ignitor of a class A or B fire – if electrical source is removed, it is no longer a class C fire)
  • Class D: metallic fire (titanium, zirconium, magnesium, sodium)
  • Class K: cooking fires – animal or vegetable oils or fats

In all cases….. Regardless of the type of fire, there will always be the same four elements present they are: Fuel, Heat, Oxygen and Chain Reaction

The theory behind portable fire extinguishers is that the fire can be extinguished by removing any one or more of these four elements. For each class of fire, the fuel, heat source and chain reaction varies, which is why there must be different types of fire extinguishers depending on the class of fire. For instance, while a Class A fire can be safely extinguished with water, a class C fire cannot, as water would conduct the electricity and risk harm to the operator.

Multipurpose Dry Chemical Fire Extinguisher:-

The fire extinguisher in your home is most likely a multipurpose fire extinguisher. These contain monoammonium phosphate, a chemical compound that smothers the flames. Since these lack an effective cooling agent, it is important to aim the discharge at the base of the fire as thoroughly as possible to prevent reignition.

Wet Chemical Fire Extinguisher:-

Wet chemical fire extinguishers use a potassium water solution. They have a cooling effect, lowering the temperature of the fire. A variant is commonly used in kitchens, offering better protection against reflash.

Pressurized Water Fire Extinguisher:-

Water extinguishers can use pure water, but often have additives like antifreeze and wetting agents to make them more effective and dependable. These units are ideally suited for all industrial and commercial applications, where easy to use, positive on-off operation is important. Pressurized water extinguishers are highly effective on deep seated Class A fires.

Foam Fire Extinguisher:-

Film-forming foam fire extinguishers are most useful against deep-seated fires. These leave behind a blanket of foam which cools and smothers a fire. Foam agents have the opportunity to get to the seat of the fire and prevents reignition. 

Clean Agent Fire Extinguisher:-

Clean agent fire extinguishers are a good option when dealing with sensitive electronic equipment. These extinguishers are non-corrosive, nonconductive, and the agent quickly evaporates, leaving no residue. They can be used at a greater distance than other types of fire extinguishers.

Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguisher:-

Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers are useful for fires that occur in areas with live electrical equipment. The agent discharges as a gas and leaves no residue while depriving the fire of oxygen. It has a short range and is not suitable for windy areas or small spaces, due to life safety concerns.

Fire Hazards/Safety Awareness For Employees In Workstation:-

Fire hazards are all around us. Our home often has a fire escape plan in place, but we need to keep fire safety in mind where we work. Depending on the type of work you have, the size of the building and the number of employees, fire escape plans can be simple or complex. Important to both safety and legal responsibility is to ensure that all workplace fire escape plans and routine fire fighting exercises are well known to all employees of the fire escape plan. To ensure that all employees are aware of fire safety, they must ensure that they are properly trained about fire prevention. You should teach and discuss about fire safety in the workplace with all of your employees.

You need to evaluate the work environment and consider fire hazards or potentially dangerous areas. You can also utilize some company to come, assess and inspect your building for the best escape plan and ensure your building  is up to code for  your  city. Make sure any device you use in the workplace is properly maintained and turned off when not in use. Microwave ovens and coffee machines can quickly catch fire if they are overcrowded or near water or heat sources. If you have equipment or machinery that can cause fires, make sure there are always fire extinguishers nearby.

Do not allow employees to have some potential fire hazards in their offices. For example, candles should not be allowed in the workplace. Provide alternatives such as wall plug-ins. If employees are allowed to have small space heaters, make sure they are calculated and remind employees to turn them off when not in use. Be sure to let your staff know about prohibited equipment or items.

Be sure to teach your employees how to properly handle a fire in the workplace. Procedures to be followed should be established. Discuss where fire alarms and fire extinguishers are located in each area of ​​your workplace. Provide professional training to your staff on how to properly use a fire extinguisher. While this may seem like a simple matter, there are refresher courses to ensure that your staff is regularly trained and that they do not forget.

In the event of a fire, make sure there is a fire escape plan. This fire safety plan should always be printed out and given to each employee. For easy access in the event of a fire, you can post fire escape route maps throughout your workplace. Every employee should know how to follow the protocol and meet at the designated safe place. You should do fire drills, so everyone is on the same page and rehearse well in case of a real fire.


Fire Sprinkler System are both fire detection and control systems rolled into one, and thereby the most effective fire suppression system available. A Fire Sprinkler System provides an excellent  fire safety solution  by offering protection, as it suppresses fires with water. It works with a control that constantly monitors temperature and when there is an increase in temperature, the sprinklers are activated, releasing water that drowns out surrounding fires.

The design of a fire sprinklers system is simple  the water attachment is attached to a piping system and water pump. The sprinkler is installed into the ceiling with the water –spitting fixture on the inside of the room and the piping system between the ceiling and the roof. There are currently four types of fire sprinkler systems available. These are as follows:

Pre-action  Sprinkler Systems:

Pre-action fire sprinkler systems are filled with air and water is allowed to pass through when the smoke alarm or detector goes off. This type of system requires two triggers to starts water  flow. It helps greatly that the pre action fire sprinkler can be set to prevent water from spouting in case of a false alarm or a mechanical failure. The pre-action system is good for  use in places where the sprinklers are only necessary when there is an actual fire, so other items in the building do not get water damage from an accidental sprinkling. Such buildings include museums, galleries, libraries and data centres. These places contain items of high value like electronics and goods damageable by water such as books.

Pre action fire sprinklers system are filled with air and water is allowed to pass through when the smoke alarm


Dry pipe sprinkler are similar to pre action systems as they use pressurised air in the pipe which exits before water escapes. This causes a minute delay in water discharge, but is ideal for buildings with low temperatures, so the pipes do not freeze. These  fire sprinkler system have a fast opening tool to get rid of the air and speed up the flow of water. This system is only suitable in cold climates. A good example would be a parking garage with very low over night temperatures, no heating facilities.


Wet pipe fire sprinkler systems constantly have water in them. This allows for a quick reaction to a fire and is the most common type of sprinkler installed in buildings. Commonly found in high rise or office building with a few floors. This system is efficient and low maintenance.


These systems also need a smoke or heat detector, like the pre- action system. A deluge system has open nozzles that can be used when a hazard is present. When flammable liquids are spread across a floor, deluge fire sprinklers are good to have. In that case, buildings such as industrial parks and buildings with many tanks have deluge fire sprinkler systems installed.


The flexible coupling is to transmit torque from one piece of rotating equipment to another, while accepting at the same time a small amount of misalignment. Flexible coupling misalignment is expressed, as an order of magnitude, in thousandths of an inch. Actual misalignment, expressed in coupling terms, is angular in nature and expressed in angular units, that is, degrees. How much misalignment is a function of the coupling type and installation. An installation variable is the equipment movement due to the temperature changes taking place in the machines as they go from the non-operating state to operation. Some angular values will be used in the discussion of the various types, but, again, these are for reference only. Each application must be reviewed using the type of coupling selected and the specific design proposed by the vendor.

Choice of flexible coupling can be important. Tradition and price are the two most often used criteria, and either can result in a poor choice. For most pumps, it is desirable to use a spacer coupling. This gives more parallel misalignment  capability than a close coupling of the same type and also provides better access for maintenance.

If radial space is limited, a gear coupling may be required. This will transmit more horsepower at a given speed than any other type occupying the same space. It is, however, more sensitive to misalignment than other types and also requires lubrication. The later factor is no longer as much of a disadvantage as it once was though, because non-separating coupling greases are now available. A gear coupling can handle limited end float applications for sleeve bearing motors, but doing this correctly can get complicated.


  • Fire Lock EZ Rigid Coupling
  • Fire Lock Rigid Coupling
  • Quick Vic Rigid Coupling
  • Zero-Flex Rigid Coupling
  • Quick Vic Flexible Coupling
  • Flexible Coupling
  • Reducing Coupling
  • AGS Flexible Coupling
  • Rigid Coupling for Type 316 Stainless Steel
  • Outlet Coupling
  • High Pressure Rigid Coupling
  • Vic-Boltless Coupling and Tool
  • Plain End Installation-Ready Refuse -to-Fuse coupling for HDPE Pipe
  • Refuse-to-Fuse Coupling for HDPE-to-Steel Pipe

Common types of valves in INDIA:-

Ball Valve

Predominantly equipped with quick-acting 90-degree turn handles, these valves use a ball to control flow to provide easy on-off control. Generally accepted by operators to be faster and easier to operate than gate valves.

Butterfly Valve

Using a compact design, the butterfly valve is a quick-acting rotary motion valve ideal for tight spaces thanks to its wafer type design. Butterfly valve bodies are offered in many different configurations.

Check Valve

Used to prevent backflow, these valves are typically self-activated allowing the valve automatically opens when media passes through the valve in the intended direction and close should flow reverse.

Gate Valve

As one of the most common valve types, gate valves use linear motion to start and stop the flow. These are typically not used for flow regulation. Instead, they used in the fully open or closed positions.

Knife Gate Valve

Typically used for controlling flow of media containing solids, the knife gate valve features a thin gate controlled through linear action which can cut through materials and create a seal.

While not suited for high-pressure implementations, these valves are ideal for use with grease, oils, paper pulp, slurry, wastewater and other media which might obstruct the operation of other valve types.

Globe Valve

Globe valves are typically applied in modulating control operations. Typically avaialable in three body types, T-body (as shown above), Y-Pattern, and Angle body.

Needle Valve

Typically used in small diameter piping systems when fine, accurate flow control is needed, Needle valves get their name from the point on a conical disc used within.

Pinch Valve

Often used for handling solid materials, slurries and liquids with suspended solids, pinch valves use a linear motion. Typically Pinch Valves feature an internal sleeve to isolate the media.

Plug Valve

Using a quick-acting quarter-turn valve handle, these valves control flow using tapered or cylindrical plugs. They provide some of the best ratings when tight shutoff is essential and are reliable in high-pressure or high-temperature environments.

Pressure Relief Valve

Used to help improve safety, these valves are spring-automated and will help to return a system to the desired pressure during over-pressure events.


SAFETY is the most common word which we are hearing often now a days. What ever we do- safety is the first thing, in that category our Sprinklers plays vital role. There are different types of Sprinklers. Among all types of fire sprinkler heads, there can be differences depending on the situation. Most often these differences exist to meet the fire protection needs of different buildings, industries, and situations – but aesthetic choices also exist.

  • Temperature sensitivity –
    one of the most critical differences. Any type of sprinkler head can be set to a different heat sensitivity (and therefore when it will trigger) by adjusting the activator, either a liquid filled glass tube or fusible metal link.
  • Finish –
    corrosion-resistance is a common finish that may not be necessary for all fire sprinkler systems. Chemical coatings are used, as well as simple solutions like wax applications. Different aesthetic finishes also exist to maintain the look of your building.
  • Response time –
    quick response fire sprinklers utilize the same temperature sensitive activator, but in a thinner glass bulb. This means the fire sprinkler is ‘set’ to a temperature, but reacts more quickly when that temperature is reached. Commonly used in high-occupancy structures to better protect people, where even a few seconds make a difference.
  • Production & Aesthetics –
    new advancements in fire sprinkler look & feel are being made constantly to provide the same protection & safety in a more attractive or discreet package. Die-cast (as opposed to sand-cast) sprinklers have a more polished look, and slimmer/smaller sprinkler heads are available – with a large variety of covers & housings.

Sprinkler’s Head:-

You shouldn’t be selecting fire sprinkler heads, or designing fire sprinkler systems, without the proper design expertise – but it helps to know the basics so you are aware of your options. The right fire sprinkler designer, like RCI Fire Phoenix, will manage the design so all regulations are met, while involving you and your team when choosing between aesthetic options – like sprinkler heads.

With any fire sprinkler system, or any fire protection component, the first priority is safety and ensuring your building is up-to-code. An expert fire protection designer with the proper training will identify the needs of your particular situation and work together with any other contractors, designers, or architects to best match your building’s design while protecting it from fire damage.