How To Sprinklers Work In Fire Emergency

Fire Sprinkler Working Condition

A fire Sprinkler system is a network of fixed water pipes supplied by two water sources with sprinkler heads mounted at the recommended distance. Water can be distributed from a tank through pumps or through down mains.

The nozzles that direct a jet of water on to a deflector plate which defuses over a large area. The water is held back by a glass bulb or soldered strut which holds a plug in place. When heat is applied from a fire below, the glass bulb will burst, due to expansion of the liquid in the bulb, or the solder will melt, which then releases the plug and water flows through the sprinkler head.

Fire Sprinklers -Commercial & Residential Fire Sprinkler Products |Victaulic

The hot gases from the fire will raise the temperature at the ceiling level and when the area adjacent to the head reaches a certain temperature, the fire sprinkler head will activate and spray water on the fire. Only the sprinkler on top of the fire will open and the others will be closed. This controls damage to non-fire areas and reduces the amount of water needed.

The different types of fire sprinkler system

  • Wet pipe fire sprinkler systems
  • Dry pipe fire sprinkler systems
  • Deluge systems fire sprinkler
  • Pre-action systems
  • Foam water fire sprinkler systems
  • Water spray fire sprinkler systems
  • Water mist fire sprinkler systems

Wet pipe fire sprinkler systems

Wet pipe sprinkler systems—or traditional fire sprinklers—are the most common across residential and commercial buildings. When a fire begins, the heat activates the nearest sprinkler head, releasing pressurized water stored in the pipes. Each sprinkler head is activated independently, reducing water damages in the event of a false alarm. Wet pipe systems are an inexpensive, low-maintenance option appropriate for offices, schools, and commercial properties.

Fire Fighting Safety Equipment - Butterfly Valve

Dry pipe fire sprinkler systems

As opposed to wet pipe fire sprinkler systems, dry pipe systems do not store water in their pipes. Instead, they are filled with pressurised air or nitrogen, which is released if a fire activates the valves in the fire sprinkler head. The pipes then fill with water and discharge it over the smoke or flames. While this system is more complex and costly than a wet pipe system, it is the most appropriate for cold climates where there is a high risk of frozen pipes halting an emergency fire response.

How to Action of Fire Sprinklers in Fire indicates.

Fire water sprinkler system is an automatic device that not only indicates the incipient fire, but as an active fire protection means, it extinguishes fire in its early stage without the intervention of human factor, respectively it keeps fire under control until the fire brigade arrives. It consists of distribution piping system that is permanently attached to building structures, valve station and sprinkler heads that are firmly attached to the distribution pipes in the protected area. Pipeline network together with Fire sprinkler heads are connected to a water source. In the case of fire, water flows out from the sprinkler heads and sprays the area where fire is present. Water extinguishes the given area during fire, cools building structures and the surrounding area and at higher temperatures it evaporates quickly, displacing oxygen and thus creates an inert atmosphere, which prevents the access of oxidant, i.e. the atmospheric oxygen that is needed for combustion.

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Fire Sprinklers -Commercial & Residential Fire Sprinkler Products |Victaulic

Sprinklers are designed in such a way that it can extinguish particular fire in certain minutes. There are different types of sprinklers for different hazard fires. Actually a fire protection system like sprinkler system is designed in such a way that fire pump can carter water for sprinklers+ adjacent hydrant points simultaneously. But the fact is each fire is different from rest. So we can’t give 100% guarantee that sprinkler will be able to protect completely.

WHY SHOULD WE USE DIFFERENT FIRE EXTINGUISHER :

Generally if homes, shops and factories caught in fire then water is used to control fire. Water brings down the temperature of the combustible substance below its ignition temperature. The water vapour surrounds the combustible material, thus helping in cutting off the supply of air. So, that the fire is extinguished.

Fire produced by the burning of oil or petrol cannot be controlled by throwing water on it because water being heavier than oil, settles down the oil and oil continues to bum? So, now a day we can use different types of Fire Extinguisher for each type.

We know that there are 3 conditions necessary for producing and sustaining combustion.

  • Presence of a combustible substance.
  • Presence of a supporter of combustion.
  • Attainment of ignition or kindling temperature.

Thus, fire can be controlled by removing one or more of these requirements of fire control. The fire extinguishers also try to cut off the supply of air or bring down the temperature of the fuel or both, to control the fire. The combustible substance as such cannot be eliminated in most of the cases from the place of fire.

There are various types of fire extinguishers used for controlling a fire.

For Example:- Soda – acid fire extinguisher : Carbon dioxide liberated by the reaction of sulphuric acid with sodium bicarbonate solution comes out with a stream of liquid water at high pressure. Water puts off the fire by lowering the temperature of the combustible material below its ignition temperature and carbon dioxide cut off the supply of air to the combustible substance

Types of combustion

Combustion is mainly of three types

  • (1)Rapid combustion (2) Spontaneous combustion (3) Explosion

         

1.Rapid combustion: The combustion in which the gas burns rapidly produces heat and light is called rapid combustion. For example: When a burning matchstick is brought near a gas burner and the gas tap is opened, the gas immediately starts burning with the production of heat and light. Eg. Petrol, LPG, spirit, etc.

2. Spontaneous combustion: The combustion in which no external heat is given is known as spontaneous combustion. For example: Burning of white phosphorus in air.

3. Explosion: The combustion in which large amount of gases are evolved with the production of a tremendous amount of heat, light and sound is called explosion. For example: When a cracker is ignited, a sudden reaction, oxidation process takes place, and in which at high speed large amount of gas is evolved with the production of tremendous amount of heat, light and sound.

Structure of a flame

In order to understand the structure of a flame, light a wax candle and watch its flame. Carefully note the different coloured zones in the flame. Starting from the base of the flame, a flame has four zones.

(1)   Blue zone: It is near the base of the flame. Vaporised wax gets oxidised to carbon monoxide and carbon monoxide bums completely with a blue flame in this zone.

(2)   Dark inner zone: Surrounding the wick is the dark zone. There is no burning in this zone. If we pass a wooden splinter through the dark zone of the flame, it comes out unscratched (unburnt) showing that there is no ‘burning’ in this zone. However, some =burnt wax vapours are present in this zone.

(3)   Luminous zone: In this region of the flame hydrogen burns with a brilliant yellow luminous flame. Burning hydrogen combines with oxygen to form water vapour. Carbon also burns in this zone giving some luminosity to the flame and producing carbon dioxide. Some unblunt carbon particles are left which give rise to soot.

(4)   Outermost non-luminous zone: This zone is poorly visible and is slightly blue. It is the hottest part of the flame where complete oxidation (burning) of the fuel is taking place.

FIRE EXTINGUISHER’S TYPES:-

Actually  fire extinguishers are differentiated  according to the objects /materials which tends to fire. There are different ‘classes’ of fire, for which each extinguisher is designed to tackle. These classes are based on which fuels a fire starts with. It’s the presence of these fuels within your business premises that will help determine which types of fire extinguisher you need and in which locations.

  • Class A: freely burning, combustible solid materials such as wood or paper
  • Class B: flammable liquid or gas
  • Class C: energized electrical fire (energized electrical source serves as the ignitor of a class A or B fire – if electrical source is removed, it is no longer a class C fire)
  • Class D: metallic fire (titanium, zirconium, magnesium, sodium)
  • Class K: cooking fires – animal or vegetable oils or fats

In all cases….. Regardless of the type of fire, there will always be the same four elements present they are: Fuel, Heat, Oxygen and Chain Reaction

The theory behind portable fire extinguishers is that the fire can be extinguished by removing any one or more of these four elements. For each class of fire, the fuel, heat source and chain reaction varies, which is why there must be different types of fire extinguishers depending on the class of fire. For instance, while a Class A fire can be safely extinguished with water, a class C fire cannot, as water would conduct the electricity and risk harm to the operator.

Multipurpose Dry Chemical Fire Extinguisher:-

The fire extinguisher in your home is most likely a multipurpose fire extinguisher. These contain monoammonium phosphate, a chemical compound that smothers the flames. Since these lack an effective cooling agent, it is important to aim the discharge at the base of the fire as thoroughly as possible to prevent reignition.

Wet Chemical Fire Extinguisher:-

Wet chemical fire extinguishers use a potassium water solution. They have a cooling effect, lowering the temperature of the fire. A variant is commonly used in kitchens, offering better protection against reflash.

Pressurized Water Fire Extinguisher:-

Water extinguishers can use pure water, but often have additives like antifreeze and wetting agents to make them more effective and dependable. These units are ideally suited for all industrial and commercial applications, where easy to use, positive on-off operation is important. Pressurized water extinguishers are highly effective on deep seated Class A fires.

Foam Fire Extinguisher:-

Film-forming foam fire extinguishers are most useful against deep-seated fires. These leave behind a blanket of foam which cools and smothers a fire. Foam agents have the opportunity to get to the seat of the fire and prevents reignition. 

Clean Agent Fire Extinguisher:-

Clean agent fire extinguishers are a good option when dealing with sensitive electronic equipment. These extinguishers are non-corrosive, nonconductive, and the agent quickly evaporates, leaving no residue. They can be used at a greater distance than other types of fire extinguishers.

Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguisher:-

Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers are useful for fires that occur in areas with live electrical equipment. The agent discharges as a gas and leaves no residue while depriving the fire of oxygen. It has a short range and is not suitable for windy areas or small spaces, due to life safety concerns.

Fire Hazards/Safety Awareness For Employees In Workstation:-

Fire hazards are all around us. Our home often has a fire escape plan in place, but we need to keep fire safety in mind where we work. Depending on the type of work you have, the size of the building and the number of employees, fire escape plans can be simple or complex. Important to both safety and legal responsibility is to ensure that all workplace fire escape plans and routine fire fighting exercises are well known to all employees of the fire escape plan. To ensure that all employees are aware of fire safety, they must ensure that they are properly trained about fire prevention. You should teach and discuss about fire safety in the workplace with all of your employees.

You need to evaluate the work environment and consider fire hazards or potentially dangerous areas. You can also utilize some company to come, assess and inspect your building for the best escape plan and ensure your building  is up to code for  your  city. Make sure any device you use in the workplace is properly maintained and turned off when not in use. Microwave ovens and coffee machines can quickly catch fire if they are overcrowded or near water or heat sources. If you have equipment or machinery that can cause fires, make sure there are always fire extinguishers nearby.

Do not allow employees to have some potential fire hazards in their offices. For example, candles should not be allowed in the workplace. Provide alternatives such as wall plug-ins. If employees are allowed to have small space heaters, make sure they are calculated and remind employees to turn them off when not in use. Be sure to let your staff know about prohibited equipment or items.

Be sure to teach your employees how to properly handle a fire in the workplace. Procedures to be followed should be established. Discuss where fire alarms and fire extinguishers are located in each area of ​​your workplace. Provide professional training to your staff on how to properly use a fire extinguisher. While this may seem like a simple matter, there are refresher courses to ensure that your staff is regularly trained and that they do not forget.

In the event of a fire, make sure there is a fire escape plan. This fire safety plan should always be printed out and given to each employee. For easy access in the event of a fire, you can post fire escape route maps throughout your workplace. Every employee should know how to follow the protocol and meet at the designated safe place. You should do fire drills, so everyone is on the same page and rehearse well in case of a real fire.